Function of piston rings in ic engine

What is a piston ring

Between the piston and the cylinder, the piston ring is an essential part for the engine to work efficiently. Piston rings have 4 main functions. Function of piston rings in ic engine A piston ring is a segmented ring in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine that fits into a groove on the outside diameter of the piston.

Function of piston rings in ic engine

  1. The function is to maintain complete air tightness in the cylinder between the piston and the cylinder wall. During detonation, the space between the piston and the cylinder works hard to seal off the leaking combustion gas. Function of piston rings in ic engine If the combustion gas leaks, the full power is not realized and fuel consumption increases, which is economically and environmentally harmful.
  1. The operation continues to create the minimum layer of lubricating oil necessary to prevent combustion inside the engine cylinder, the piston ring is exposed to high temperature combustion gas and travels along with the piston several thousand times per minute. Return, or more. To ensure that the piston rings and cylinder do not burn, and to prevent excess lubricant from entering the combustion chamber, the cylinder wall lubricant layer is controlled to the minimum required level.
  1. The action of releasing heat from the piston to the cylinder When the gas explodes, the temperature inside the piston reaches about 300 degrees centigrade. If that heat stays inside the piston, the engine can be damaged, so the heat must be released from the interior. Function of piston rings in ic engine Function of piston rings in ic engine The piston ring helps to do this.
  2. The function of preventing the piston from making strong contact with the cylinder wall, if the piston is at an angle, it contacts different places while moving, and this may cause damage to the engine. The piston ring supports the piston so that the piston can travel up and down easily.


  1. Gas seal operation

This means that the combustion chamber must be as gas-tight as possible so that the pressure generated by the rapidly burning combustion gases moves the piston in the cylinder,

thereby rotating the crankshaft, Function of piston rings in ic engine thereby providing power. Very important not only for combustion/expansion stroke but also for gas tightness, intake, compression and exhaust stroke. This common function can simply be called a “gas seal”.

  1. Heat transfer function

Piston rings conduct heat from the hot piston to the cold cylinder wall/engine block. Heat energy flows from the piston groove to the piston ring and then to the cylinder wall,

where it is ultimately transferred to the engine coolant. This heat transfer function is critical to maintain acceptable temperature and stability in the piston and piston rings so that sealing performance is not compromised.

  1. Oil control function

The piston rings require some oil for lubrication, although Function of piston rings in ic engine it is desirable to keep this amount to a minimum.

The rings act as a scraping mechanism, keeping excess oil out of the combustion chamber. In this way, oil consumption remains at an acceptable level and harmful emissions are reduced.

Piston rings serve three purposes

  • Piston rings seal off the combustion chamber. They are precisely positioned so that proper pressure is applied to the cylinder wall or liner, Function of piston rings in ic engine which ensures a constant film of oil on the working surfaces of the cylinder. It provides adequate lubrication and prevents wear.
  • Perkins piston rings come in three ring shapes. They are the upper compression ring, then the intermediate compression ring and finally the oil control ring. These parts are relatively small in size, but play a large role in your engine’s master cylinder block.
  • Their function is to seal the gases produced in the internal combustion process, helping to transfer heat to the cylinder wall, which then both lubricates and removes oil from it. Getting the right amount of oil is important. Function of piston rings in ic engine Too much oil will burn and your engine will produce blue smoke while too little oil will eventually cause the engine to shut down.
  • The primary function of the upper compression ring is to seal off most of the combustion gases to ensure maximum power output from your engine. Any failure or weakness in the piston rings in this area means that your engine is performing less than expected.
  • The lower ring can responsible for most of the oil control, helping to ensure that the correct amount of oil can used to lubricate the working surfaces of the cylinder, while the intermediate ring serves both functions, including combustion sealing. plays a final role. And the oil spills down.

As a result of these three rings working in harmony, Function of piston rings in ic engine adequate lubrication within the cylinder bore ensures that unnecessary wear does not occur at any time.

Pistons and piston rings

A piston is a cylindrical engine component that slides back and forth in the cylinder bore due to the forces generated during the combustion process. Function of piston rings in ic engine The piston acts as the moving end of the combustion chamber. The fixed end of the combustion chamber is the cylinder head. Pistons can usually made of cast aluminum alloy for better and lightweight thermal conductivity.

Function of piston rings in ic engine Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to transmit and transfer heat. Aluminum expands when heated, and proper clearance must be provided to maintain free movement of the piston in the cylinder bore. Insufficient clearance can cause the piston to become stuck in the cylinder. Excessive clearance will increase compression loss and piston noise.

Piston features include piston head, piston pin bore, piston pin, skirt, ring grooves, ring lands, and piston rings. The piston head can the top surface of the piston (closest to the cylinder head) that can subjected to the greatest force and heat during normal engine operation.

  • A piston pin hole can  a hole in the side of the piston perpendicular to the piston
  • Travel that the piston pin receivesA piston pin is a hollow shaft that connects the short end of the connecting rod to the piston.
  • The piston skirt is the part of the piston closest to the crankshaft
  • that helps align the piston as it moves through the cylinder bore Some rims
  • have cut profiles to reduce piston mass and allow for a rotating crankshaft counterweight.

Piston rings

Function of piston rings in ic engine

The ring groove can an intermediate area located around the circumference of the piston that can used to retain the piston ring. The ring lands are two parallel surfaces of the ring groove that act as a sealing surface for the piston ring. Function of piston rings in ic engine A piston ring can an expandable split ring used to provide a seal among the piston and the cylinder wall. Piston earrings can usually fabricated from solid iron.

Cast iron retains the integrity of its original shape below heat, load and other dynamic forces. Piston earrings seal the combustion chamber, switch warmth from the piston to the cylinder wall, and return oil to the crankcase. Piston ring size and configuration varies depending on engine design and cylinder material.

compression ring

The compression ring can the ring highest or closest to the combustion gases and can exposed to high levels of chemical corrosion and high operating temperatures. The compression ring transfers 70% of the combustion chamber heat from the piston to the cylinder wall. Most Briggs & Stratton engines use narrow-faced or barrel-faced compression rings. Function of piston rings in ic engine A taper faced compression ring is a piston ring that has a taper angle of approximately 1° to the moving surface. This taper provides a slight scavenging action to prevent excess oil from reaching the combustion chamber.

A barrel facing compression ring is a piston ring that has a twisted surface to provide continuous lubrication to the piston ring and cylinder wall.

  • It also provides a wedge effect to improve oil distribution
  • throughout the entire stroke of the piston.
  • In addition, the curved running surface reduced
  • the possibility of oil film rupture due to excessive
  • pressure on the ring edge or excessive
  • inclination of the piston during operation.
Wiper ring
  • The wiper ring, sometimes called the scraper ring, Napier ring, or back-up compression ring, is the next ring on the piston from the cylinder head.
  • The wiper ring provides a uniform thickness of oil film to lubricate the running surface of the compression ring. Function of piston rings in ic engine
  • Most wiper rings on Briggs & Stratton engines have a tapered angled face.
  • The tapered angle is located on the side of the oil reservoir and provides a sweeping action as the piston moves toward the crankshaft.
  • The taper angle provides contact that diverts excess oil from the cylinder wall to the oil ring and into the oil reservoir.
  • An incorrectly installed wiper ring with a taper angle too close to the compression ring leads to excessive oil consumption.
  • This can caused by the wiper ring sweeping excess oil towards the combustion chamber Function of piston rings in ic engine.


Read More>>>> How does a piston work in a petrol engine

Oil ring

An oil ring consists of two thin rails or running surfaces. Function of piston rings in ic engine Holes or holes cut in the radial center of the ring allow excess oil to flow back into the oil reservoir. Oil rings are usually in one piece, incorporating all of these features. Some on-piece oil rings use a spring expander to apply additional radial pressure to the piston ring. This increases the unit pressure (the amount of force measured and the amount of moving surface) applied to the cylinder wall.

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