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working principle of Shaper machine

Principle of operation working principle of Shaper machine

  • It is a reciprocating machine tool used for flat machining working principle of Shaper machine.
  • single point cutting tool is used and placed on the ram.
  • Ram performs horizontally. The work item is placed on the table.
  • Metal is removed while moving forward. Feed is supplied at the end of the cutting stroke.
  • As the ram reacts against the workpiece, metal is cut and removed by the tool.

Format Types

The forms are classified as follows:

  1. By Type of Driving Mechanism a) Cracked and Slotted Link Drive b) White Worth Mechanism c) Hydraulic Drive
  2. According to the travel of ram a) Horizontal pattern b) Vertical pattern
  3. According to table type a) Fixed or simple shaper b) Universal shaper
  4. By type of cutting a) Push cut shaper b) Draw cut shaper.

Standard Format: Area:

Foundation:

  • It is made of CI and bears the entire load.

Column:

  • It is a hollow box and made of CI.
  • It is placed on the base. It has a quick return mechanism for RAM and navigation modes.
  • The top of the line ram is fixed by dovetail guide systems

Cross Rail:

  • It is mounted on the column.
  • Horizontal guide ways are provided and are called saddles
  • The table slides over the saddle.
  • The cross rail raising screw is provided with vertical movement

desk:

  • It is a rectangular and plain CI block. working principle of Shaper machine This is a slide on guiding methods.
  • It is supported by an adjustable table support and has T slots for clamping operation
  • The table is moved horizontally by rotating the cross feed screw.
  • The table is rotated vertically by turning the elevating screw to beat:
  • It holds the tool head at the front end.
  • Rama guides the path of the dove’s tail at the top of the pillar.
  • It is associated with quick return mechanism.
  • The stroke length of the ram is adjusted by rotating the hand wheel on the ram.

Tool head:

  • It consists of equipment. It has a vertical slide and a revolving base.
  • The tool can be rotated in the vertical direction by turning the feed screw downwards
  • at the required angle.
  • Can give vertical and angular feed to tool head.
  • Apron is fitted and can be tilted as per requirement
  • The shield has a clapper box and the tool block is inside it.
  • Tools module contains tools. During the cutting stroke, the tool block fits firmly
  • Inside the clapper box.
  • During the return stroke, the tool block moves out of the clapper box. It is
  • Prevents tool rubbing at work.

Format Specifications:

  1. Maximum stroke length
  2. Maximum horizontal movement of table
  3. Maximum vertical speed of table
  4. Motor power
  1. Type of driving mechanism
  2. Ratio of cutting stroke time to go back stroke time
  3. Type of pattern – plain or universal
  4. Net weight of shaper
  5. Floor space

Quick Withdrawal Mechanism:

  • Forward cutting stroke cuts into the metal workpiece. working principle of Shaper machine
  • During return stroke, no metal is cut, it can called passive stroke.
  • Idle stroke time is essential to reduce overall machining time to reduce
  • For this the return stroke can made faster than the cutting stroke and can done by
  • A mechanism called the quick withdrawal mechanism.
  • A quick return of RAM can achieved through the following quick return mechanism.

Mechanism

  1. Crank and slotted linkage mechanism
  2. Whitworth mechanism
  3. Hydraulic mechanism

Crank and slotted link mechanism:

 

  • An electric motor can used to drive the driving pinion at constant speed.
  • The bull rotates the gear at a constant speed.
  • Pull gear can a large gear and can mounted inside the column. A slide can also attached
  • Diameter on face of bull gear.
  • Pull gear sliding block can slide on the pull gear slide. Its position can adjusted radially by rotating the stroke adjustment screw. This can done by rotating the bevel gear with a handle from the outside.
  • A crank pin can mounted on the pull gear sliding block. The rocker arm sliding block can mounted independently on the crank pin. The end can pivoted under a slotted link or rocker arm.
  • The upper end of the rocker arm can shaped like a fork. It can independently connected to the RAM module by a pin. working principle of Shaper machine Perforated links have a slot along the length. The rocker arm sliding block fits into this slot.
  • When the pull gear rotates, the crank pin also rotates. The rocker arm sliding block rotates in the crank pin circle. At this point this sliding block slides up and down in the slot of the slotted link (rocker arm).
  • It gives swinging motion to the rocker arm.

It responds to RAM.

  • When the slotted connector is in the PA position, the RAM is in the back position (at the end of the page). When the link is in BB, the RAM is in the forward position. PA and PB are tangent to the crank pin circle.
  • The forward cutting stroke occurs when the crank pin angle rotates through C1KC2. working principle of Shaper machine The return stroke occurs when the crank pin angle rotates through C2LC1. Angle C1KC2 is greater than angle C2LC1. Bull gear has the same speed. The stroke length is same during forward stroke and return stroke. So the return stroke takes less time.
  • Cutting speed is not uniform throughout the stroke length. This is the minimum
  • It is the maximum in the middle Paralysis.

To correct the stroke condition:

  • The clamping manage on the ram can loosened first. There is a screw inside the ram
  • The stroking position adjustment knob should can rotated.
  • Now the ram moves forward or backward. After adjusting the RAM status,
  • The clamping handle can tightened

Whitworth quick withdrawal mechanism

An electric motor rotates the driving gear at constant speed and this gear rotates the pull gear at constant speed.

The driving pin (D) can  mounted on the face of the pull gear. Fits the driving pin

In the slot of the driving crank. This pull gear rotates around the center of ‘O’

At the same time it slides into the slot of the driving crank

Due to this, the driving crank rotates around its center P. When pin D is in A, the RAM is in its extreme backward state. As the pull gear rotates (counter-clockwise) the pin passes through α and reaches point B.

When D is at B, the ram is at its most forward position. Then cut

A stroke occurs when the crank pin D passes from B to A through an angle α

(counter-clockwise) through the BKA angle, the return stroke occurs.

Angle BKA is smaller than angle α. Bull gear has the same speed.

Thus a return stroke through a small angle would be BKA

Less time.

Hydraulic drive

  • A hydraulic cylinder can placed inside the hollow ram of the shaper. cylinder
  • A piston moves inside the cylinder.
  • It’s far related to the ram by way of a piston rod.
  • As the piston moves inside the cylinder, the ram also moves. A gear pump
  • Pumps oil from the reservoir at a constant rate. Oil passes through
  • 4-way control valve and enters the cylinder on side A.
  • The piston moves forward due to oil pressure. Cutting stroke sounds
  • The oil on the right side of the piston can forced out of the cylinder.
  • Through B it passes through a 4-way valve and reaches the reservoir tube c
  • The travel dog attached to the bottom of the ram moves the valve lever to the P1 position. At the end of the forward stroke, the valve lever reaches the P2 position. Now the 4th valve allows the oil from the pump to enter the cylinder from the B side
  • Oil pressure pushes the piston back. Ram came back
  • Oil exits through A from the lift portion of the piston.
  • through the 4-way valve and through pipe C to the reservoir
  • On the return stroke the second travel dog moves the valve lever from P2 to P1.
  • The cycle repeats itself

Feed System:

In the shaper, the feed can given at the end of the return stroke. Cross feed is provided manually or automatically. For machining vertical and inclined surfaces, the down feed tool head is fed by manually rotating the down feed screw.

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Hand feeding

  • When rotating the table horizontally perpendicular to the RAM
  • The movement can called cross-feeding. Cross feed can given by rotating
  • Cross feed screw with a handle. It goes through a screwed nut
  • Behind the desk.
  • The table can vertically adjustable to accommodate work pieces of different heights. A
  • A horizontal rod with a bevel gear can attached to the bevel gear in raising it
  • screw
  • The table can  rotated by rotating the lifting screw through the horizontal rod.
  • The downward motion of the device can known as down feed. Down feed is provided
  • Turn the down feed screw on the tool head to the tool side by hand.

Automatic Table Feed

  • Automatic feed mechanism used in shaper
  • A ratchet can fitted at the end of the cross-feed screw. Rocker arm is provided
  • In the center of the stem. On top of the rocker arm is a spring loaded pawl.
  • One edge of the nail can straight and the other edge can slanted. below
  • The rocker arm can connected to the feed disc by a connecting rod. Feed disc
  • Drive is provided by a pull gear.
  • The diameter of the feed disc has T-slots. A crank pin fits into this slot.
  • The end of the connecting rod can connected to the crank pin. When the bull gear rotates
  • The feed disc rotates. Now the rocker arm oscillates around the hub
  • Cord through the connecting wire.
  • When the feed disc rotates half clockwise. top
  • The rocker arm portion moves clockwise. Straight side
  • The claw fits into the teeth of the shaft and turns the shaft counter-clockwise.
  • The shaft now rotates the feed screw. Feed screw table
  • This feed can given on the table only during the return stroke
  • To change the direction of motion of the table, a pawl pin can mounted, rotated 180° and then reset. Since the straight part of the nail is in the opposite direction. It rotates in the opposite direction.
  • This will rotate the feed screw in the opposite direction. Hence the table movement the head.

 

 

 

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